A Garden of Fruit Producing Trees and Plants Word Craze

A Garden of Fruit Producing Trees and Plants Word Craze

Genus of plants

Tulip
Red Tulipa × gesneriana flowers
Tulipa
×
gesneriana
Scientific classification

e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Gild: Liliales
Family: Liliaceae
Subfamily: Lilioideae
Tribe: Lilieae
Genus: Tulipa

Fifty.
Type species
Tulipa
×
gesneriana

L.

Subgenera
  • Clusianae
  • Orithyia
  • Tulipa
  • Eriostemones
Diversity
Nearly 75 species
Map of the distribution of both naturally occurring and introduced tulips
Distribution of
Tulipa: Natural (red) and Introduced (yellow)
Synonyms[ane]

Synonyms

  • Orithyia
    D.Don
  • Liriactis
    Raf.
  • Liriopogon
    Raf.
  • Podonix
    Raf.
  • Eduardoregelia
    Popov

Tulips
(Tulipa) are a genus of jump-blooming perennial herbaceous bulbiferous geophytes (having bulbs as storage organs). The flowers are commonly big, showy and brightly coloured, generally red, pink, yellow, or white (unremarkably in warm colours). They often have a different coloured blotch at the base of operations of the tepals (petals and sepals, collectively), internally. Because of a degree of variability inside the populations, and a long history of cultivation, classification has been complex and controversial. The tulip is a member of the lily family, Liliaceae, forth with xiv other genera, where it is most closely related to
Amana,
Erythronium
and
Gagea
in the tribe Lilieae.

There are about 75 species, and these are divided among four subgenera. The proper name “tulip” is thought to exist derived from a Persian word for turban, which it may have been thought to resemble by those who discovered it. Tulips originally were plant in a band stretching from Southern Europe to Central Asia, simply since the seventeenth century have become widely naturalised and cultivated (encounter map). In their natural country they are adapted to steppes and mountainous areas with temperate climates. Flowering in the spring, they become dormant in the summer once the flowers and leaves die dorsum, emerging higher up ground every bit a shoot from the clandestine bulb in early on spring.

Growing wild over much of the Nigh East and Central Asia, tulips were cultivated in Constantinople equally early as 1055. Past the 15th century, tulips were among the nigh prized flowers; becoming the symbol of the Ottomans.[ii]
While tulips had probably been cultivated in Persia from the tenth century, they did not come to the attending of the West until the sixteenth century, when Western diplomats to the Ottoman court observed and reported on them. They were chop-chop introduced into Europe and became a frenzied article during tulip mania. Tulips were oft depicted in Dutch Golden Age paintings, and have become associated with the Netherlands, the major producer for globe markets, ever since. In the seventeenth century Netherlands, during the time of the tulip mania, an infection of tulip bulbs past the tulip breaking virus created variegated patterns in the tulip flowers that were much admired and valued. While truly broken tulips are not cultivated anymore, the closest bachelor specimens today are part of the grouping known every bit the Rembrandts – then named because Rembrandt painted some of the nearly admired breaks of his time.[3]

Breeding programmes have produced thousands of hybrid and cultivars in add-on to the original species (known in horticulture every bit botanical tulips). They are popular throughout the world, both every bit ornamental garden plants and as cut flowers.

Description

[edit]

Tulipa
(tulips) is a genus of leap-blooming perennial herbaceous bulbiferous geophytes, dying dorsum after flowering to an clandestine storage bulb. Depending on the species, tulip plants tin can be between 10 and lxx cm (iv and 28 inches) high.

Flowers: The tulip’s flowers are ordinarily large and are actinomorphic (radially symmetric) and hermaphrodite (contain both male (androecium) and female (gynoecium) characteristics), more often than not erect, or more rarely pendulous, and are arranged more usually as a single final bloom, or when pluriflor every bit two to 3 (e.g.
Tulipa turkestanica), but up to iv, flowers on the end of a floriferous stem (scape), which is single arising from amongst the basal leaf rosette. In structure, the flower is generally cup or star shaped. As with other members of Liliaceae the perianth is undifferentiated (perigonium) and biseriate (2 whorled), formed from six gratuitous (i.eastward. apotepalous) caducous tepals arranged into 2 separate whorls of 3 parts (trimerous) each. The two whorls correspond three petals and three sepals, but are termed tepals considering they are well-nigh identical. The tepals are usually petaloid (petal like), being brightly coloured, but each curl may exist dissimilar, or have different coloured blotches at their bases, forming darker colouration on the interior surface. The inner petals take a small, delicate cleft at the elevation, while the sturdier outer ones course uninterrupted ovals.[iii]

Androecium: The flowers have 6 singled-out, basifixed introrse stamens arranged in two whorls of three, which vary in length and may exist glabrous or hairy. The filaments are shorter than the tepals and dilated towards their base of operations.[4]

Gynoecium: The mode is brusk or absent and each stigma has three singled-out lobes, and the ovaries are superior, with three chambers.[four]

Fruit: The tulip’s fruit is a globose or ellipsoid capsule with a leathery covering and an ellipsoid to globe shape. Each capsule contains numerous flat, disc-shaped seeds in ii rows per chamber.[5]
These calorie-free to dark brown seeds have very thin seed coats and endosperm that does not ordinarily fill the entire seed.[6]
[4]

Leaves: Tulip stems have few leaves. Larger species tend to have multiple leaves. Plants typically have 2 to half dozen leaves, some species upwardly to 12. The tulip’s leaf is cauline (born on a stem), strap-shaped, with a waxy coating, and the leaves are alternating (alternately bundled on the stem), diminishing in size the farther up the stalk. These fleshy blades are often bluish-greenish in color.[7]
[8]
[ix]The bulbs are truncated basally and elongated towards the apex. They are covered by a protective tunic (tunicate) which can be glabrous or hairy within.[4]
[nine]

Colours

[edit]

The “Semper Augustus” was the most expensive tulip during the 17th-century tulip mania. “The color is white, with Carmine on a blue base, and with an unbroken flame right to the top” – wrote Nicolas van Wassenaer in 1624 subsequently seeing the tulip in the garden of one Dr Adriaen Pauw, a director of the new Eastward India Company. With limited specimens in existence at the time and most endemic by Pauw, his refusal to sell whatsoever flowers, despite wildly escalating offers, is believed by some to have sparked the mania.[3]

Tulip flowers come up in a wide multifariousness of colours, except pure blue (several tulips with “blue” in the name have a faint violet hue), and have absent nectaries.[seven]
[8]
[nine]
[4]
Tulip flowers are generally insufficient of odor and are the coolest of floral characters. The Dutch regarded this lack of scent as a virtue, as it demonstrates the flower’s chasteness.[iii]

While tulips tin be bred to display a wide variety of colours, black tulips take historically been difficult to attain. The Queen of the Night tulip is as close to black equally a blossom gets, though information technology is, in fact, a dark and glossy maroonish royal – nonetheless, an upshot prized past the Dutch.[three]
The first truly black tulip was bred in 1986 by a Dutch flower grower in Bovenkarspel, Netherlands. The specimen was created past cross-convenance two deep royal tulips, the Queen of the Nighttime and Wienerwald tulips.[10]

Phytochemistry

[edit]

Tulipanin is an anthocyanin found in tulips. It is the 3-rutinoside of delphinidin. The chemical compounds named tuliposides and tulipalins can also be found in tulips and are responsible for allergies.[eleven]
Tulipalin A, or α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone, is a common allergen, generated by hydrolysis of the glucoside tuliposide A. It induces a dermatitis that is by and large occupational and affects tulip seedling sorters and florists who cutting the stems and leaves.[12]
Tulipanin A and B are toxic to horses, cats and dogs.[13]
The colour of a tulip is formed from 2 pigments working in concert; a base colour that is always yellow or white, and a second laid-on anthocyanin colour. The mix of these two hues determines the visible unitary color. The breaking of flowers occurs when a virus suppresses anthocyanin and the base colour is exposed equally a streak.[3]

Fragrance

[edit]

The peachy majority of tulips, both species and cultivars, accept no discernable scent, but a few of both are scented to a caste, and Anna Pavord describes
T. Hungarica
as “strongly scented”,[fourteen]
and among cultivars, some such equally “Monte Carlo” and “Chocolate-brown Saccharide” are “scented”, and “Creme Upstar” “fragrant”.[15]

Taxonomy

[edit]

Tulipa
is a genus of the lily family, Liliaceae, one time one of the largest families of monocots, only which molecular phylogenetics has reduced to a monophyletic grouping with only 15 genera. Within Liliaceae,
Tulipa
is placed inside Lilioideae, one of three subfamilies, with two tribes. Tribe Lilieae includes seven other genera in addition to
Tulipa.

Subdivision

[edit]

The genus, which includes about 75 species, is divided into iv subgenera.[9]

  • Clusianae
    (iv species)
  • Orithyia
    (iv species)
  • Tulipa
    (52 species)
  • Eriostemones
    (16 species)

Etymology

[edit]

The discussion
tulip, get-go mentioned in western Europe in or around 1554 and seemingly derived from the “Turkish Letters” of diplomat Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq, first appeared in English as
tulipa
or
tulipant, entering the language by mode of French:
tulipe
and its obsolete grade
tulipan
or by mode of Modern Latin
tulipa, from Ottoman Turkish
tülbend
(“muslin” or “gauze”), and may be ultimately derived from the Persian:
دلبند
delband
(“Turban”), this name being applied because of a perceived resemblance of the shape of a tulip bloom to that of a turban.[16]
This may take been due to a translation error in early times when it was stylish in the Ottoman Empire to habiliment tulips on turbans. The translator possibly confused the flower for the turban.[9]

Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq stated that the “Turks” used the give-and-take “tulipan” to describe the flower. Extensive speculation has tried to understand why he would land this, given that the Turkish word for tulip is “lale”. It is from this speculation that “tulipan” being a translation error referring to turbans is derived. This Etymology has been challenged and makes no assumptions about possible errors. At no point does Busbecq state this was the give-and-take used in Turkey, he just states it was used by the “Turks”. On his manner to Constantinople Busbecq states he travelled through Hungary and used Hungarian guides. Until recent times “Turk” was a common term when referring to Hungarians. The give-and-take “tulipan” is in fact the Hungarian word for tulip. Equally long as one recognizes “Turk” as a reference to Hungarians, no amount of speculation is required to reconcile the word’s origin or form. Busbecq was simply repeating the word used past his “Turk/Hungarian” guides.[17]

The Hungarian word “tulipan” may be adopted from an Indo-Aryan reference to the tulip as a symbol of resurrection, “tala” meaning lesser or underworld and “pAna” meaning defence force.[17]
Prior to arriving in Europe the Hungarians, and other Finno-Ugrians, embraced the Indo-Iranian cult of the dead, Yima/Yama, and would have been familiar with all of its symbols including the tulip.[18]

Distribution and habitat

[edit]

Map from Turkmenistan to Tien-Shan

Tulips are mainly distributed along a band respective to latitude 40° due north, from southeast of Europe (Hellenic republic, Republic of albania, North Macedonia, Kosovo, Southern Serbia, Bulgaria, most function of Romania, Ukraine, Russian federation) and Turkey in the west, through the Levant (Syria, State of israel, Palestinian Territories, Lebanon and Jordan) and the Sinai Peninsula. From at that place it extends eastwards through Jerevan, (Armenia) and Baku (Azerbaijan) and on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea through Turkmenistan, Bukhara, Samarkand and Tashkent (Uzbekistan), to the eastern end of the range in the Pamir-Alai and Tien-Shan mountains in Primal Asia, which form the centre of diversity.[19]
Further to the east,
Tulipa
is found in the western Himalayas, southern Siberia, Inner Mongolia, and as far as the northwest of China. While authorities have stated that no tulips west of the Balkans are native,[xx]
subsequent identification of
Tulipa sylvestris
subsp.
australis
as a native of the Iberian peninsula and adjacent N Africa shows that this may be a simplification. In addition to these regions in the westward tulips have been identified in Hellenic republic, Republic of cyprus and the Balkans. In the s, Iran marks its furthest extent, while the northern limit is Ukraine.[21]
Although tulips are also throughout most of the Mediterranean and Europe, these regions do non course role of the natural distribution. Tulips were brought to Europe past travellers and merchants from Anatolia and Central Asia for tillage, from where they escaped and naturalised (encounter map). For instance, less than one-half of those species found in Turkey are actually native.[20]
These have been referred to as neo-tulipae.[22]
[23]
[9]

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Tulips are indigenous to mountainous areas with temperate climates, where they are a common element of steppe and winter-rain Mediterranean vegetation. They thrive in climates with long, cool springs and dry summers. Tulips are almost normally found in meadows, steppes and chaparral, but also introduced in fields, orchards, roadsides and abandoned gardens.[22]
[9]

Ecology

[edit]

Variegation produced past the tulip breaking virus

Botrytis tulipae
is a major fungal affliction affecting tulips, causing prison cell death and eventually the rotting of the plant.[24]
Other pathogens include anthracnose, bacterial soft rot, blight caused by
Sclerotium rolfsii, bulb nematodes, other rots including blue molds, black molds and mushy rot.[25]

The fungus
Trichoderma viride
can infect tulips, producing dried leaf tips and reduced growth, although symptoms are unremarkably balmy and only nowadays on bulbs growing in glasshouses.[
citation needed
]

Variegated tulips admired during the Dutch tulipomania gained their delicately feathered patterns from an infection with the tulip breaking virus, a mosaic virus that was carried by the light-green peach aphid,
Myzus persicae. While the virus produces fantastically streaked flowers, it too weakens plants and reduces the number of offsets produced. Dutch growers would get to boggling lengths during tulipomania to make tulips break, borrowing alchemists’ techniques and resorting to sprinkling pigment powders of the desired hue or dove droppings onto flower roots.[iii]

Tulips affected past the mosaic virus are called “broken”; while such plants tin occasionally revert to a plain or solid colouring, they will remain infected and take to be destroyed. Today the virus is almost eradicated from tulip growers’ fields. The multicoloured patterns of modern varieties outcome from breeding; they normally accept solid, un-feathered borders between the colours.

Tulip growth is also dependent on temperature conditions. Slightly germinated plants bear witness greater growth if subjected to a period of cool dormancy, known every bit vernalisation. Furthermore, although flower evolution is induced at warmer temperatures (xx–25 °C or 68–77 °F), elongation of the flower stalk and proper flowering is dependent on an extended period of low temperature (< 10 °C or 50 °F).[26]
Tulip bulbs imported to warm-winter areas are ofttimes planted in autumn to be treated every bit annuals.

The color of tulip flowers also varies with growing conditions.[27]

Cultivation

[edit]

History

[edit]

Islamic World

[edit]

Cultivation of the tulip began in Iran (Persia), probably in the 10th century.[nine]
Early cultivars must have emerged from hybridisation in gardens from wild collected plants, which were then favoured, peradventure due to flower size or growth vigour. The tulip is not mentioned by any writer from antiquity,[29]
therefore information technology seems probable that tulips were introduced into Anatolia only with the accelerate of the Seljuks.[29]
In the Ottoman Empire, numerous types of tulips were cultivated and bred,[30]
and today, fourteen species tin however be establish in Turkey.[29]
Tulips are mentioned by Omar Kayam and Jalāl ad-Dīn Rûmi.[29]
Species of tulips in Turkey typically come in ruby, less commonly in white or yellowish. The Ottoman Turks had discovered that these wild tulips were keen changelings, freely hybridizing (though it takes 7 years to show color) only as well subject to mutations that produced spontaneous changes in form and colour.[three]

A paper past Arthur Baker[31]
reports that in 1574, Sultan Selim Two ordered the Kadi of A‘azāz in Syria to ship him fifty,000 tulip bulbs. However, John Harvey[32]
points out several bug with this source, and there is too the possibility that tulips and hyacinth (sümbüll), originally Indian spikenard (Nardostachys jatamansi) have been confused. Sultan Selim too imported 300,000 bulbs of
Kefe Lale
(besides known equally Cafe-Lale, from the medieval name Kaffa, probably
Tulipa schrenkii) from Kefe in Crimea, for his gardens in the Topkapı Sarayı in Istanbul.[33]

It is besides reported that before long after arriving in Constantinople in 1554, Ogier Ghislain de Busbecq, administrator of the Austrian Habsburgs to the courtroom of Suleyman the Magnificent, claimed to take introduced the tulip to Europe by sending a consignment of bulbs west. The fact that the tulip’s get-go official trip west took it from one courtroom to the other could accept contributed to its ascendency.[iii]

Sultan Ahmet III maintained famous tulip gardens in the summer highland pastures (Yayla) at Spil Dağı to a higher place the town of Manisa.[34]
They seem to take consisted of wild tulips. However, of the xiv tulip species known from Turkey, just four are considered to be of local origin,[35]
so wild tulips from Iran and Key Asia may have been brought into Turkey during the Seljuk and specially Ottoman periods. Also, Sultan Ahmet imported domestic tulip bulbs from the Netherlands.

The gardening book
Revnak’ı Bostan
(Beauty of the Garden) past Sahibül Reis ülhaç Ibrahim Ibn ülhaç Mehmet, written in 1660 does not mention the tulip at all, but contains advice on growing hyacinths and lilies.[36]
However, in that location is considerable confusion of terminology, and tulips may have been subsumed nether hyacinth, a fault several European botanists were to perpetuate. In 1515, the scholar Qasim from Herat in contrast had identified both wild and garden tulips (lale) as anemones (shaqayq al-nu’man), but described the crown imperial as
laleh kakli.[36]

In a Turkic text written before 1495, the Chagatay Husayn Bayqarah mentions tulips (lale).[37]
Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, besides names tulips in the Baburnama.[38]
He may actually have introduced them from Afghanistan to the plains of India, as he did with other plants like melons and grapes.[39]

In Moorish Andalus, a “Makedonian bulb” (basal al-maqdunis) or “saucepan-Narcissus” (naryis qadusi) was cultivated every bit an ornamental institute in gardens. Information technology was supposed to have come from Alexandria and may have been Tulipa sylvestris, but the identification is not wholly secure.[40]

Introduction to Western Europe

[edit]

Tulip cultivation in the Netherlands

Although information technology is unknown who first brought the tulip to Northwestern Europe, the most widely accustomed story is that it was Oghier Ghislain de Busbecq, an ambassador for Emperor Ferdinand I to Suleyman the Magnificent. According to a letter, he saw “an abundance of flowers everywhere; Narcissus, hyacinths and those in Turkish called Lale, much to our astonishment considering it was almost midwinter, a flavor unfriendly to flowers.”[41]
[42]
Still, in 1559, an account past Conrad Gessner describes tulips flowering in Augsburg, Swabia in the garden of Councillor Heinrich Herwart.[43]
In Central and Northern Europe, tulip bulbs are more often than not removed from the ground in June and must exist replanted by September for the winter.[
citation needed
]

It is doubtful that Busbecq could have had the tulip bulbs harvested, shipped to Frg and replanted between March 1558 and Gessner’due south description the following twelvemonth. Pietro Andrea Mattioli illustrated a tulip in 1565 but identified it every bit a narcissus.

Carolus Clusius is largely responsible for the spread of tulip bulbs in the concluding years of the 16th century; he planted tulips at the Vienna Imperial Botanical Gardens in 1573. He finished the commencement major work on tulips in 1592 and made note of the variations in color. Later on he was appointed the managing director of the Leiden Academy’s newly established Hortus Botanicus, he planted both a teaching garden and his private garden with tulips in belatedly 1593. Thus, 1594 is considered the date of the tulip’south first flowering in the netherlands, despite reports of the tillage of tulips in private gardens in Antwerp and Amsterdam ii or three decades before. These tulips at Leiden would eventually lead to both the tulip mania and the tulip industry in the netherlands.[44]
Over two raids, in 1596 and in 1598, more one hundred bulbs were stolen from his garden.

Tulips spread quickly across Europe, and more opulent varieties such as double tulips were already known in Europe by the early 17th century. These curiosities fitted well in an age when natural oddities were cherished and especially in holland, France, Germany and England, where the spice merchandise with the East Indies had made many people wealthy.
Nouveaux riches
seeking wealthy displays embraced the exotic constitute market, peculiarly in the Low Countries where gardens had become stylish. A craze for bulbs before long grew in French republic, where in the early 17th century, entire backdrop were exchanged as payment for a single tulip seedling. The value of the bloom gave it an aura of mystique, and numerous publications describing varieties in lavish garden manuals were published, cashing in on the value of the blossom. An export concern was congenital upwardly in France, supplying Dutch, Flemish, German and English buyers. The trade drifted slowly from the French to the Dutch.[45]

Betwixt 1634 and 1637, the enthusiasm for the new flowers in Holland triggered a speculative frenzy now known as the tulip mania that eventually led to the plummet of the market place 3 years after. Tulip bulbs had become so expensive that they were treated every bit a form of currency, or rather, as futures, forcing the Dutch government to introduce trading restrictions on the bulbs.[45]
Around this fourth dimension, the ceramic tulipiere was devised for the display of cut flowers stem past stem. Vases and bouquets, usually including tulips, often appeared in Dutch still-life painting. To this twenty-four hour period, tulips are associated with kingdom of the netherlands, and the cultivated forms of the tulip are oft called “Dutch tulips”. The Netherlands has the world’south largest permanent display of tulips at the Keukenhof.

The majority of tulip cultivars are classified in the taxon
Tulipa ×gesneriana. They take commonly several species in their direct groundwork, but about have been derived from
Tulipa suaveolens
(today ofttimes regarded as a synonym with
Tulipa schrenkii).
Tulipa ×gesneriana
is in itself an early hybrid of complex origin and is probably not the same taxon as was described by Conrad Gessner in the 16th century.[9]

The United kingdom of great britain and northern ireland’south National Collection of English florists’ tulips and Dutch historic tulips, dating from the early 17th century to c.1960, is held by Polly Nicholson at Blackland House, near Calne in Wiltshire.[46]

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Introduction to the United States

[edit]

The Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden

It is believed the first tulips in the United states were grown near Spring Pond at the Fay Manor in Lynn and Salem, Massachusetts. From 1847 to 1865, Richard Sullivan Fay, Esq., i of Lynn’s wealthiest men, settled on 500 acres (two km2; 202 ha) located partly in present-day Lynn and partly in present-day Salem. Mr. Fay imported many dissimilar trees and plants from all parts of the world and planted them amongst the meadows of the Fay Estate.[47]

Propagation

[edit]

Tulip pistil surrounded by stamens

Tulip stamen with pollen grains

The reproductive organs of a tulip

The Netherlands is the world’due south main producer of commercial tulip plants, producing equally many as 3 billion bulbs annually, the bulk for export.[48]

“Unlike many flower species, tulips exercise not produce nectar to entice insect pollination. Instead, tulips rely on wind and country animals to motion their pollen between reproductive organs. Considering they are self-pollinating, they do not need the pollen to move several feet to some other plant but only inside their blossoms.”[49]

Tulips can be propagated through bulb offsets, seeds or micropropagation.[50]
Offsets and tissue civilization methods are means of asexual propagation for producing genetic clones of the parent plant, which maintains cultivar genetic integrity. Seeds are nigh oftentimes used to propagate species and subspecies or to create new hybrids. Many tulip species can cantankerous-pollinate with each other, and when wild tulip populations overlap geographically with other tulip species or subspecies, they often hybridise and create mixed populations. Most commercial tulip cultivars are complex hybrids, and oftentimes sterile.

Offsets require a twelvemonth or more than of growth before plants are large enough to flower. Tulips grown from seeds often need v to viii years before plants are of flowering size. To prevent cantankerous-pollination, increase the growth charge per unit of bulbs and increase the vigour and size of offsets, the flower and stems of a field of commercial tulips are usually topped using big tractor-mounted mowing heads. The same goals can be achieved by a private gardener by clipping the stem and flower of an individual specimen. Commercial growers ordinarily harvest the tulip bulbs in late summertime and course them into sizes; bulbs large enough to flower are sorted and sold, while smaller bulbs are sorted into sizes and replanted for sale in the future.

Because tulip bulbs don’t reliably come back every year, tulip varieties that fall out of favour with nowadays aesthetic values have traditionally gone extinct. Unlike other flowers that do not endure this aforementioned limitation, the Tulip’s historical forms do non survive alongside their modern incarnations.[3]

Horticultural classification

[edit]

‘Gavota’, a sectionalization 3 cultivar

‘Yonina’, a division 6 cultivar

‘Texas Flame’, a division 10 cultivar

In horticulture, tulips are divided into fifteen groups (Divisions) mostly based on flower morphology and found size.[51]
[52]

  • Div. i: Unmarried early on
    – with cup-shaped single flowers, no larger than eight cm (3 inches) across. They bloom early to mid flavour. Growing 15 to 45 cm (6 to 18 inches) tall.
  • Div. ii: Double early
    – with fully double flowers, bowl shaped to eight cm (3 inches) across. Plants typically grow from 30–twoscore cm (12–xvi inches) alpine.
  • Div. 3: Triumph
    – single, cup shaped flowers upwards to 6 cm (2.v inches) broad. Plants grow 35–sixty cm (fourteen–24 inches) alpine and bloom mid to late flavour.
  • Div. 4: Darwin hybrid
    – unmarried flowers are ovoid in shape and up to half dozen cm (2.v inches) wide. Plants grow fifty–70 cm (twenty–28 inches) tall and bloom mid to tardily season. This group should not be confused with older Darwin tulips, which belong in the Single Late Group below.
  • Div. v: Single late
    – cup or goblet-shaped flowers up to viii cm (iii inches) wide, some plants produce multi-flowering stems. Plants grow 45–75 cm (18–xxx inches) tall and bloom tardily season.
  • Div. 6: Lily-flowered
    – the flowers possess a distinct narrow ‘waist’ with pointed and reflexed petals. Previously included with the old Darwins, simply becoming a group in their own right in 1958.[53]
  • Div. 7: Fringed (Crispa)
    – loving cup or goblet-shaped blossoms edged with spiked or crystal-like fringes, sometimes chosen “tulips for bear upon” because of the temptation to “test” the fringes to see if they are real or made of glass. Perennials with a tendency to naturalize in woodland areas, growing 45–65 cm (eighteen–26 inches) tall and blooming in late season.
  • Div. 8: Viridiflora
  • Div. nine: Rembrandt
  • Div. 10: Parrot
  • Div. eleven: Double late
    – Large, heavy blooms. They range from 46 to 56 cm (18 to 22 inches) tall.
  • Div. 12: Kaufmanniana
    – Waterlily tulip. Medium-large creamy yellowish flowers marked red on the outside and yellow at the centre. Stems xv cm (6 inches) tall.
  • Div. 13: Fosteriana (Emperor)
  • Div. fourteen: Greigii
    – Scarlet flowers fifteen cm (6 inches) across, on 15-centimetre (6 in) stems. Leafage mottled with brown.[54]
  • Div. fifteen: Species or Botanical
    – The terms “species tulips” and “botanical tulips” refer to wild species in contrast to hybridised varieties.[55]
    As a group they have been described equally existence less ostentatious simply more reliably vigorous equally they historic period.[56]
    [57]
  • Div. xvi: Multiflowering
    – not an official partitioning, these tulips belong in the first 15 divisions but are oftentimes listed separately considering they accept multiple blooms per bulb.

They may also be classified past their flowering season:[58]

  • Early on flowering: Unmarried Early Tulips, Double Early Tulips, Greigii Tulips, Kaufmanniana Tulips, Fosteriana Tulips, § Species tulips
  • Mid-season flowering: Darwin Hybrid Tulips, Triumph Tulips, Parrot Tulips
  • Belatedly season flowering: Unmarried Late Tulips, Double Late Tulips, Viridiflora Tulips, Lily-flowering Tulips, Fringed (Crispa) Tulips, Rembrandt Tulips

Neo-tulipae

[edit]

Tulip Bulb Depth

Tulip bulb planting depth xv cm (half dozen inches)

A number of names are based on naturalised garden tulips and are usually referred to as neo-tulipae. These are often hard to trace back to their original cultivar, and in some cases accept been occurring in the wild for many centuries. The history of naturalisation is unknown, but populations are ordinarily associated with agronomical practices and are peradventure linked to saffron tillage[
description needed
]
. Some neo-tulipae have been brought into cultivation, and are often offered as botanical tulips. These cultivated plants can be classified into two Cultivar Groups: ‘Grengiolensis Group’, with picotee tepals, and the ‘Didieri Grouping’ with unicolourous tepals.

Horticulture

[edit]

Tulip bulbs are typically planted around late summertime and fall, in well-tuckered soils. Tulips should exist planted ten to 15 cm (4 to half dozen inches) autonomously from each other. The recommended hole depth is 10 to 20 cm (four to 8 inches) deep, and is measured from the top of the bulb to the surface. Therefore, larger tulip bulbs would crave deeper holes. Species tulips are commonly planted deeper.[
citation needed
]

Culture and politics

[edit]

Islamic republic of iran

[edit]

The commemoration of Persian New year’s day, or Nowruz, dating back over 3,000 years, marks the advent of jump, and tulips are used as a decorative feature during the festivities.[59]

A sixth-century fable, like to the tale of
Romeo and Juliet, tells of tulips sprouting where the blood of the young prince Farhad spilt subsequently he killed himself upon hearing the (deliberately false) story that his true dearest had died.[59]

The tulip was a topic for Farsi poets from the thirteenth century. The poem
Gulistan
by Musharrifu’d-din Saadi, described a visionary garden paradise with “The murmur of a cool stream / bird song, ripe fruit in enough / vivid multicoloured tulips and fragrant roses…”.[60]
In contempo times, tulips take featured in the poems of Simin Behbahani.[
commendation needed
]

The tulip is the national symbol for martyrdom in Iran[61]
(and Shi’ite Islam generally), and has been used on postage stamps and coins. Information technology was mutual as a symbol used in the 1979 Islamic Revolution, and a ruby-red tulip adorns the flag redesigned in 1980. The sword in the centre, with four crescent-shaped petals around it, create the word “Allah” besides as symbolising the five pillars of Islam. The tomb of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini is decorated with 72 stained glass tulips, representing 72 martyrs who died at the Battle of Karbala in 680CE. It was also used every bit a symbol on billboards jubilant casualties of the 1980–1988 war with Iraq.[59]

The tulip as well became a symbol of protest against the Iranian government after the presidential election in June 2009, when millions turned out on the streets to protest the re-election of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. After the protests were harshly suppressed, the Iranian Greenish Movement adopted the tulip as a symbol of their struggle.[59]

The give-and-take for tulip in Persian is “laleh” (لاله), and this has become popular equally a girl’due south name.[61]
The name has been used for commercial enterprises, such every bit the Laleh International Hotel, too as public facilities, such as Laleh Park[59]
and Laleh Hospital,[62]
and the tulip motif remains common in Iranian culture.[59]

In other countries and cultures

[edit]

Tulips are called
lale
in Turkish (from Persian: “laleh” لاله). When written in Standard arabic letters, “lale” has the same letters every bit
Allah, which is why the blossom became a holy symbol. Information technology was also associated with the House of Osman, resulting in tulips existence widely used in decorative motifs on tiles, mosques, fabrics, crockery, etc. in the Ottoman Empire.[ix]
The tulip was seen as a symbol of abundance and indulgence. The era during which the Ottoman Empire was wealthiest is often called the Tulip era or
Lale Devri
in Turkish.

Tulips became popular garden plants in the eastward and west, but, whereas the tulip in Turkish civilisation was a symbol of paradise on globe and had well-nigh a divine status, in kingdom of the netherlands it represented the briefness of life.[ix]

In Christianity, tulips symbolise passion, belief and dear. White tulips represent forgiveness while purple tulips stand for royalty, both important aspects of Easter.[63]
In Calvinism, the five points of the doctrines of grace have been summarized nether the acrostic TULIP.[64]
[65]

By dissimilarity to other flowers such as the coneflower or lotus flower, tulips have historically been capable of genetically reinventing themselves to adapt changes in aesthetic values. In his 1597 herbal, John Gerard says of the tulip that “nature seems to play more with this flower than with any other that I do know”. When in the Netherlands, dazzler was defined by marbled swirls of bright contrasting colours, the petals of tulips were able to get “feathered” and “flamed”. Withal, in the 19th century, when the English desired tulips for carpet bedding and massing, the tulips were able to once again adapt this by evolving into “pigment-filled boxes with the brightest, fattest dabs of pure pigment”. This inherent mutability of the tulip fifty-fifty led the Ottoman Turks to believe that nature cherished this bloom above all others.[three]

Seventeenth-century tulip mania has been described above.

The Black Tulip
(1850) is an historical romance by Alexandre Dumas, père. The story takes identify in the Dutch city of Haarlem, where a advantage is offered to the starting time grower who can produce a truly black tulip.[
citation needed
]

The tulip occurs on a number of the Major Arcana cards of occultist Oswald Wirth’s deck of Tarot cards, specifically the Sorcerer, Emperor, Temperance and the Fool, described in his 1927 work
Le Tarot, des Imagiers du Moyen Âge.[66]
[67]

Tulip festivals

[edit]

Tulip festivals are held around the world, for example in kingdom of the netherlands[68]
and Spalding, England. There is also a popular festival in Morges, Switzerland. Every spring, there are tulip festivals in North America, including the Tulip Time Festival in The netherlands, Michigan, the Skagit Valley Tulip Festival in Skagit Valley, Washington, the Tulip Fourth dimension Festival in Orange Urban center and Pella, Iowa, and the Canadian Tulip Festival in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Tulips are also pop in Australia and several festivals are held in September and October, during the Southern Hemisphere’southward spring. The Indira Gandhi Memorial Tulip Garden hosts an annual tulip festival which draws huge attention and has an attendance of over 200,000.

Read:   Art in the Garden Augusta Ky

Consumption

[edit]

Tulip petals are edible flowers. The taste varies by multifariousness and season, and is roughly similar to lettuce or other salad greens. Some people are allergic to tulips.[69]
[lxx]

Tulip bulbs look similar to onions, but should not generally be considered food. The toxicity of bulbs is not well-understood, nor is in that location an agreed-upon method of safely preparing them for human being consumption. In that location have been reports of illness when eaten, depending on quantity.[71]
During the Dutch famine of 1944–45, tulip bulbs were eaten out of agony, and Dutch doctors provided recipes.[72]
[73]

Animals

[edit]

Every bit with other plants of the lily family, tulips are poisonous to domestic animals including horses, cats and dogs.[13]
In cats, ingestion of modest amounts of tulips can include vomiting, low, diarrhea, hypersalivation, and irritation of the mouth and pharynx, and larger amounts can crusade abdominal pain, tremors, tachycardia, convulsions, tachypnea, difficulty animate, cardiac arrhythmia, and coma. All parts of the tulip institute are poisonous to cats, while the bulb is especially unsafe. A veterinarian should be contacted immediately if a cat has ingested tulip.[74]

See also

[edit]

  • Listing of Award of Garden Merit tulips
  • Tulip period

Explanatory notes

[edit]


  1. ^

    Analogy of
    Tulipa sylvestris
    subsp.
    australis, identified as Tulipa breyniana

Citations

[edit]


  1. ^

    WCSP 2017.

  2. ^


    Boissoneault, Lorraine. “There Never Was a Existent Tulip Fever”.
    Smithsonian Magazine
    . Retrieved
    31 March
    2020
    .


  3. ^


    a




    b




    c




    d




    east




    f




    g




    h




    i




    j




    yard




    Pollan, Michael (2002).
    The Botany of Desire. New York: Random House. pp. 95. ISBN0-375-76039-three.


  4. ^


    a




    b




    c




    d




    e



    Grey-Wilson & Matthews 1980.

  5. ^

    Straley & Utech 2003.

  6. ^

    Botschantzeva 1982.
  7. ^


    a




    b



    King 2005, p. 164.
  8. ^


    a




    b



    Tenenbaum 2003, p. 395.
  9. ^


    a




    b




    c




    d




    e




    f




    one thousand




    h




    i




    j




    thousand



    Christenhusz et al 2013.

  10. ^


    “World’s kickoff blackness tulip grown in Holland”.
    United Press International Archives
    . Retrieved
    18 April
    2019
    .



  11. ^


    Christensen, 50. P.; Kristiansen, Thou. (1999). “Isolation and quantification of tuliposides and tulipalins in tulips (Tulipa) past high-performance liquid chromatography”.
    Contact Dermatitis.
    xl
    (6): 300–9. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.1999.tb06080.ten. PMID 10385332. S2CID 19973741.



  12. ^


    Sasseville, D (2009). “Dermatitis from plants of the new globe”.
    European Journal of Dermatology.
    19
    (5): 423–30. doi:10.1684/ejd.2009.0714. PMID 19487175.


  13. ^


    a




    b




    “Tulip”. ASPCA. Retrieved
    1 April
    2013
    .



  14. ^

    Pavord (2019 revd. edn), 301

  15. ^

    Pavord (2019 revd. edn), 374, 379, 405

  16. ^


    “Tulip”.
    Etymplogy Online
    . Retrieved
    24 July
    2017
    .


  17. ^


    a




    b




    Sandor, Frank (2018). “An indic-hungarian reconstruction”
    (PDF).
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    4
    (1): 94–100. Retrieved
    7 February
    2021
    .



  18. ^


    Kuzʹmina, E. E. (2007).
    The origin of the Indo-Iranians. Leiden, holland: Brill. ISBN978-90-04-16054-v.



  19. ^

    Pavord 1999, p. 6
  20. ^


    a




    b



    Marais 1984.

  21. ^

    Rex 2005, p. 16.
  22. ^


    a




    b



    Hall 1940.

  23. ^

    Eker et al 2014.

  24. ^


    Reyes, A. Leon; Prins, T. P.; van Empel, J.-P.; van Tuyl, J. M. (2005). “Differences in Epicuticular Wax Layer in Tulip Can Influence Resistance to
    Botrytis Tulipae“.
    Acta Horticulturae.
    673
    (673): 457–46. doi:10.17660/ActaHortic.2005.673.59.



  25. ^


    Westcott, Cynthia; Horst, R. Kenneth (1979).
    Westcott’due south Plant disease handbook. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. p. 709. ISBN978-0-442-23543-7.



  26. ^


    Rietveld, Patrick 50.; Wilkinson, Clare (March 2000). “Low temperature sensing in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) is mediated through an increased response to auxin”.
    Journal of Experimental Botany.
    51
    (344): 587–594. doi:ten.1093/jexbot/51.344.587. PMID 10938815.



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    Le Nard, M.; British indian ocean territory, E. (1997). “Measurement of Colour Variation of Tulip Flowers Grown in Different Conditions”.
    Acta Horticulturae.
    10
    (430): 837–842. doi:10.17660/ActaHortic.1997.430.133.



  28. ^


    Sims, John, ed. (1804). “Tulipa Breyntiana. Cape Tulip”.
    Curtis’s Botanical Magazine. Vol. xix. Drawn by Sydenham Edwards; Engraved past F. Sansom. T. Curtis. plate 717.


  29. ^


    a




    b




    c




    d




    Mathew, Brian; Baytop, Turhan (1984).
    The Bulbous Plants of Turkey. Frome: Batsford. p. 100. ISBN978-0713445176.



  30. ^

    Eken, Ahmet (2002).
    Artık Göremediğimiz Bir Çiçek
    İstanbul Lâlesi, Hedef, Nisan p. 83

  31. ^


    Baker, A. (1931). “The Cult of the Tulip in Turkey”.
    Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society.
    LVI
    (1): 240ff.



  32. ^

    Harvey (1976), p. 24

  33. ^

    Pavord 1999, p. 32

  34. ^

    Harvey (1976), pp. 21–42

  35. ^


    Wilford, Richard.
    Tulips. Species and hybrids for the gardener. Portland: Timber Press. p. 53.


  36. ^


    a




    b



    Harvey (1976), p. 26

  37. ^

    Harvey (1976), p. 25

  38. ^

    Harvey (1976), p. 22

  39. ^

    Annette Susanne Beveridge, Babur-nama (Memoirs of Babur). Translated from the original Turki text of Zahiru’d-din Muhammad Babur Padsha Ghazo. Delhi 1921 (Reprint Low Price Publications 1989 in einem Ring, ISBN 81-85395-07-i, 686

  40. ^


    Hernández Bermejo, J. Esteban; García Sánchez, Expiración (2009). “Tulips: An Ornamental Crop in the Andalusian Heart Ages”.
    Economical Botany.
    63
    (1): 60–66. doi:x.1007/s12231-008-9070-3. JSTOR 40390435. S2CID 25071279.



  41. ^


    Blunt, Wilfrid (1950).
    Tulipomania. Illustrated past Alexander Marshal. London: Penguin Books. p. 7.



  42. ^

    Forster, E. S. (trans. et ed.) (1927).
    The Turkish Letters of Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq. Oxford.

  43. ^


    Pavord, Anna (2014).
    The Tulip: The Story of a Blossom That Has Made Men Mad. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. Introduction p.four. ISBN9781408859032.



  44. ^


    “How A Turkish Flower Enflamed the Dutch Mural”.
    The New York Times. iv March 2001. Retrieved
    14 March
    2012
    .


  45. ^


    a




    b




    Christenhusz, Maarten J. K. (June 2013). “Tiptoe through the tulips – cultural history, molecular phylogenetics and classification of Tulipa (Liliaceae)”.
    Botanical Journal of the Linnean Order.
    172
    (iii): 280–328. doi:ten.1111/boj.12061.



  46. ^


    “Tulipa (celebrated tulips)”.
    Plant Heritage
    . Retrieved
    xv March
    2022
    .



  47. ^

    The Daily Item, Lynn, Mass.
    Independent Paper, January 24, 1952

  48. ^


    Tulipa
    spp”. Floridata. Retrieved
    7 Dec
    2009
    .



  49. ^


    Tin You Pollinate Tulips?
    spp”. Retrieved
    30 April
    2022
    .



  50. ^


    Nishiuchi, Y. (1986). “Multiplication of Tulip Bulb by Tissue Civilization
    in vitro“.
    ISHS Acta Horticulturae.
    177
    (177): 279–284. doi:10.17660/ActaHortic.1986.177.forty.



  51. ^


    Brickell, Christopher; Zuk, Judith D. (1997).
    The American Horticultural Society A–Z encyclopedia of garden plants. New York, N.Y.: DK Pub. p. 1028. ISBN978-0-7894-1943-nine.



  52. ^


    “Tulips”. The Plant Expert. 15 October 2008. Retrieved
    14 March
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  53. ^

    Pavord 1999, p. 352.

  54. ^



    The Western Garden Volume
    (Third ed.). Menlo Park, CA: Lane Magazine & Book Company. 1972. p. 448.



  55. ^


    Eyster, William H. (1950). “The ‘Species’ Tulips”.
    Organic Gardening. 16–17: 22. Retrieved
    31 May
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    Bales, Suzanne F. (1992).
    Bulbs. Macmillan General Reference. p. 74. ISBN9780671863920.



  57. ^


    Barbarous, Derek (1990).
    The Easiest Flowers to Abound. Ortho Books. p. 97. ISBN9780897212205.



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    Jauron, Richard. “Tulip Classes”.
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    Pavord 1999, p. 31.
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    a




    b




    “Dazzler unbound: Flowers in Iranian culture”.
    Tehran Times. fifteen Jan 2012. Retrieved
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    “Laleh Infirmary”. Medical Tourism Direction in IRAN. Retrieved
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    “Easter Flowers”.
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    Lawson, Steven (18 March 2019). “TULIP and The Doctrines of Grace”.
    Ligonier Ministries. Archived from the original on 21 Jan 2021. Retrieved
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    In reality, these five doctrines of grace form one comprehensive body of truth apropos conservancy.



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    Sproul, R. C. (2016).
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    Wirth, Oswald (2013).
    Tarot of the Magicians: The Occult Symbols of the Major Arcana that Inspired Modern Tarot. Introduction by Mary G. Greer. Cherry-red Bike/Weiser. p. 253. ISBN978-i-57863-531-3
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    Wirth, Oswald (1985).
    Full text of “Tarot Of The Magicians Past Oswald Wirth”.
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    Le Tarot, des Imagiers du Moyen Âge




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    “TULIP FESTIVAL AMSTERDAM”.
    Tulip Festival Amsterdam. Tulip Festival Amsterdam. fourteen February 2018. Retrieved
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    Bellamy, Lucy (4 October 2013). “Tasty tulips”.
    The Guardian
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  70. ^


    Creasy, Rosalind (2012).
    The Edible Flower Garden. Tuttle Publishing. p. 156. ISBN978-1-4629-0617-viii
    . Retrieved
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  71. ^


    “Tulip Seedling Toxicity”.
    poisonous substance.org. National Uppercase Poison Center. Retrieved
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    “Eating Tulip Bulbs During World War II”.
    Amsterdam Tulip Museum
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    Katherine Beck (24 October 2022). “The Humble Dutch Soup That Saved Lives During WWII”.
    Tasting Tabular array.



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    “Are Tulips Poisonous to Cats? What to Exercise Next”.
    Purina
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General and cited works

[edit]

Books

[edit]

  • Botschantzeva, Z. P. (1982).
    Tulips: taxonomy, morphology, cytology, phytogeography and physiology. CRC Press. p. 120. ISBN978-90-6191-029-9.

  • Clusius, Carolus (1951).
    A Treatise on Tulips. Translated by W. van Dijk. Haarlem: Associated Bulb Growers of Holland.


    (Translation of a section from the
    Rariorum plantarum historia, 1601: run into Clusius (1601))
  • Clusius, Carolus (1601).
    Rariorum plantarum historia: quae accesserint, proxima pagina docebit. Antwerp: Ioannem Moretum.

  • Dash, Mike (1999).
    Tulipomania: The Story Of The Earth’south Near Coveted Flower & The Extraordinary Passions Information technology Angry. London: Orion Publishing Group. ISBN978-1-78022-057-four.

  • Davis, PH, ed. (1984).
    Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean islands book 8. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN978-0852244944.

  • Everett, Diana (2013).
    The Genus Tulipa: Tulips of the World. Kew Publishing. ISBN978-one-84246-481-six.

  • Goldgar, Anne (2007).
    Tulipmania: Money, Honor, and Knowledge in the Dutch Golden Age. Chicago: Academy of Chicago Press. ISBN9780226301303
    . Retrieved
    21 February
    2015
    .

  • Grey-Wilson, C.; Matthews, Five. A. “Tulipa 50.”. In Tutin et al (1980), pp. 28–34.
  • Hall, A. Daniel (1940).
    The genus Tulipa. London: Royal Horticultural Society.

  • King, Michael (2005).
    Gardening with Tulips. Portland, OR: Timber Press. ISBN978-0-88192-744-3.

  • Linnaeus, Carl (1753). “Tulipa”.
    Species Plantarum. Vol. i. Vol. 1. Impensis Laurentii Salvii. pp. 305–306.


    see also Species Plantarum
  • Marais, Due west. “Tulipa”. In Davis (1984), pp. 302–311.
  • Pavord, Anna (1999).
    The Tulip. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN978-0-7475-4296-iv.

  • Pollan, Michael (2001).

    The Botany of Desire: A Plant’s-Center View of the World
    . New York: Random House. ISBN9780375501296.

  • Papiomitoglou, Vangelis (2006).
    Wild flowers of Hellenic republic. Mediterraneo Editions. ISBN9789608227743.

  • Tutin, T. Thousand.; et al., eds. (1980).
    Flora Europaea. Volume 5, Alismataceae to Orchidaceae (monocotyledones). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN978-0521201087
    . Retrieved
    4 October
    2014
    .

  • Tenenbaum, Frances, ed. (2003).
    Taylor’southward Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN978-0-618-22644-iii.

Articles

[edit]

  • Christenhusz, Maarten J.M.; Govaerts, Rafaël; David, John C.; Hall, Tony; et al. (2013). “Tiptoe through the tulips – cultural history, molecular phylogenetics and classification of
    Tulipa
    (Liliaceae)”.
    Botanical Journal of the Linnean Social club.
    172
    (3): 280–328. doi:x.1111/boj.12061.

  • Clennett, John C. B.; Chase, Marking W.; Woods, Félix; Maurin, Olivier; et al. (December 2012). “Phylogenetic systematics of
    Erythronium
    (Liliaceae): morphological and molecular analyses”.
    Botanical Journal of the Linnean Social club.
    170
    (4): 504–528. doi:x.1111/j.1095-8339.2012.01302.ten.

  • Eker, İsmail; Babaç, Mehmet Tekin; Koyuncu, Mehmet (29 January 2014). “Revision of the genus Tulipa L. (Liliaceae) in Turkey”.
    Phytotaxa.
    157
    (1): 001. doi:ten.11646/phytotaxa.157.1.1.

  • Harvey, John H. (1976). “Turkey every bit a Source of Garden Plants”.
    Garden History.
    4
    (3): 24–42. doi:ten.2307/1586521. JSTOR 1586521.

  • Tan, Dun-Yan; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Xin-Rong; Hong, De-Yuan (2005). “Restoration of the genus
    Amana
    Honda (Liliaceae) based on a cladistic analysis of morphological characters”
    (PDF).
    Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica
    (in Chinese).
    43
    (3): 262–270. doi:10.1360/aps040106 (inactive 31 July 2022). Retrieved
    14 September
    2015
    .



    {{cite periodical}}: CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of July 2022 (link)
  • Turktas, Mine; Metin, Özge Karakaş; Baştuğ, Berk; Ertuğrul, Fahriye; et al. (July 2013). “Molecular phylogenetic analysis of
    Tulipa
    (Liliaceae) based on noncoding plastid and nuclear Dna sequences with an emphasis on Turkey”.
    Botanical Journal of the Linnean Club.
    172
    (3): 270–279. doi:10.1111/boj.12040.

  • Veldkamp, J. F.; Zonneveld, B. J. Thousand. (2011). “The infrageneric nomenclature of
    Tulipa
    (Liliaceae)”.
    Plant Systematics and Development.
    298: 87–92. doi:10.1007/s00606-011-0525-0.

Websites

[edit]

  • Straley, Gerald B.; Utech, Frederick H. (2003). “Tulipa”.
    Flora of North America Volume 26. p. 199. Retrieved
    10 September
    2014
    .

  • “Tulipa”.
    The Found List (2013). Version 1.ane. 2013. Retrieved
    30 August
    2017
    .

  • “Tulipa”.
    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved
    xxx Baronial
    2017
    .

External links

[edit]

  • Canadian National Capital Commission: The Gift of Tulips Archived 14 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  • Bulb flower product » Tulip, International Bloom Bulb Centre
  • Tulip Moving picture Book, International Bloom Seedling Centre



A Garden of Fruit Producing Trees and Plants Word Craze

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tulip